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Essay on Environment Pollution – How to Fight it

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Hints: Introduction, Concept of environmental pollution, Types of environmental pollution, Impact of environmental pollution, Ways to control environmental pollution, Conclusion.


Environmental pollution has become a matter of great concern all over the world in recent years. The existence of human life mainly depends on the environment and a sound environment is a must for sound health. Considering the importance of a sound environment as well as its continuous trend of degradation, more and more people are becoming aware of these environmental concerns and trying to discover the proper methods or ways to check them.

Concept of environmental pollution

Simply, environment means surrounding conditions and circumstances and environmental pollution means any sort of disorder of these conditions and circumstances. Actually, any sort of natural disorder which affects our social, economical, and political life negatively may be termed as environmental pollution. Surrounding conditions consist of many objects and forces both natural and man-made. There should be an optimum relationship between these elements. If these relationships are disturbed or some of their objects or/and forces are contaminated, environmental pollution occurs which affects human life.

Types of environmental pollution

Since the environment is composed of everything around us, there are many forms or types of environmental pollution. Environmental pollution can mainly be classified as follows :

a. Air pollution: Air pollution is the contamination of the air by substances such as fuel exhaustion, smoke, etc. Any kind of alteration in the properties of air contributes to air pollution. Several natural processes work to keep the constituents of the atmosphere in balance. Air pollution occurs when industries, vehicles, etc. produce smoke and harmful gas. Besides, nuclear radiation, deforestation, aerosols, etc. are air pollutants also. According to WHO, about one-fifth of the world’s people are exposed to hazardous levels of air pollutants. In our country overpopulation, vehicles which use petrol and diesel industries, brick factories, etc. are major pollutants of air. An environmental study by the BAEC (Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission) shows that one cubic meter of air of Dhaka Contains 463 nanometer lead whereas Mumbai and Mexico, the worst polluted countries of the world, contain 360 nm and 383 nm.

b. Water pollution: The alteration in the composition of water in any way which may create a threat to a living being is called water pollution. Sewage, toxic chemicals, metals, etc. are various substances of water pollution. Arsenic is another substance of water pollution. At present, nuclear tests and dumping of nuclear wastage are causing serious water pollution.

c. Soil pollution: Soil pollution may be defined as the alteration of the soil which reduces its utility. Soil pollutants help to reduce essential soil elements and to increase such harmful elements. Bacteria, fungi, small animals, etc. are names of various essential soil elements which increase the fertility of the soil. Chemical fertilizer, pesticide, irrigation, etc. can damage the soil in the long run. Another alarming soil pollutant is polythene which is not decomposable at all. Acid rain can also reduce the fertility of the soil.

d. Sound Pollution: It is another form of environmental pollution. Over noise is very harmful to the animal. But, there is no specific definition of noise pollution. Sound exceeding the maximum acceptable limit may be termed noise pollution. Machines, airplanes, motors, chaos in the marketplaces, public meetings, etc: create sound pollution.

Impact of environmental pollution

All forms of pollution have more or fewer impacts on both plants and animals. So, environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems facing humanity and other life forms on our planet today. The most important impacts are shown below:

  1. Some air pollutants have reduced the capacity of the atmosphere to filter out the sun’s harmful ultraviolet radiation. Many scientists believe that these air pollutants have begun to change the climate of the world. The greenhouse effect is a result of air pollution. If the global temperature is raised by 1.5—c, about 17.5% of Bangladesh may go underwater.
  2. Besides, the ultraviolet ray may create serious diseases like cancer due to increased CFCs. c. Water pollution also creates several diseases like diarrhea, cholera, typhoid, liver necrosis, etc.
  3. Polluted water is a great threat to aquatic animals. Due to water pollution, the production and growth of fish have been reduced significantly in our country.
  4. Soil pollution decreases the fertility of soil as well as its productivity which impedes the alleviation of the food problem.
  5. Soil pollution or polluted soil directly harms the plants which may be a cause of desertification.
  6. Noise pollution causes serious health hazards to man and animals such as hearing problems, blood pressure, fright or any stress reaction, etc. So, it is clear that all sorts of environmental pollution bear far-reaching impacts.

Ways to control environmental pollution

It is impossible to drive away environmental pollution. But, we can control environmental pollution by controlling pollutants, for which the following recommendations may be recommended:

  1. Since it is a worldwide problem, the world community should take effective measures to preserve the world’s environment.
  2. A strong and acceptable policy should be taken by the UN.
  3. The legal framework should be strengthened both nationally and internationally.
  4. Two-stroke engines and the use of leaded fuel should be banned.
  5. The use of polythene and plastic materials should be banned also.
  6. We have to use the alternative of wood. Besides, social forestry may be encouraged.
  7. Peasants have to reduce the usage of chemical fertilizers.
  8. Detaching industrial areas from residential areas.

Finally, the relationships among all the living and non-living in an environment make up an ecological system which is called an eco-system. Due to this ecosystem, pollution that seems to affect only one part of the environment may also affect other parts. So, a comprehensive program is required to check all forms of pollution.


Awareness has been increased amongst scientists, political leaders, and common people at present regarding environmental pollution and its effects. It is good news. In 1992, the world conference on the environment was organized in Rio-de-Janeiro. In this conference, it is realized that the developed countries use a major portion of the world resources and they are mainly responsible for environmental pollution. Poverty and overpopulation of third-world countries are also vital factors of environmental pollution. Actually, the universe is ours. So, it is our duty to protect it from all sorts of threats to save our lives. The developed countries cannot neglect it as well as the underdeveloped countries cannot deny their responsibility. Individual efforts are also essential to curve pollution.

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