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Essay on Bengali Literature in our Liberation War

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Hints: Introduction, Liberation War, Literature of Bangladesh, Liberation War based novels, Poems, and Liberation War consciousness, Liberation War and short stories, Drama and Liberation War, Liberation War and treatise, Conclusion.


According to Maxim Gorkey, the main elements of literature should be the events or happenings, related to national life. The event of the liberation war of a nation is the prime event of all the events as liberation is an all-time historic event for a nation because the appeal of liberation is never to be faded, it is unending. The Liberation War of 1971 is the best event in the national life of Bangladesh; independence is the greatest event for this nation. In the high tide of that war, we achieved freedom, and after the attainment of freedom, innumerable books were composed based on it. Of course, all of those compositions could not identify the exact move and nature of the war; all the compositions could not gain artistic success. But still, the amount of Liberation War-centered literature is no less.

Liberation War

In 1947, after the division of the Indian sub-continent, East Pakistan became a part of the mother Pakistan (undivided Pakistan), and thenceforth East Pakistan people became restless for the brutal ruling and exploitation of the West Pakistan rulers. Consequently, from the black night of 25 March 1971 Liberation Struggle started, and the people of East Pakistan, wishing to be free, fought until 16 December 1972 against the West Pakistan occupation Army. At last, after a blood-curdling war of nine months, we got Bangladesh or we became independent.

Literature of Bangladesh

Literature is the mirror of life. The function of literature is unlimited in the development of a sound nation. Bangladesh, though a newborn state, has a very ancient literary tradition. Bangladesh literature bears the inheritance in the rich trend of Bengali literature. Liberation War, as a new topic, has been annexed with our experience. Bangladeshi poets, novelists, storytellers, dramatists, and prose writers have written poems, stories, novels, drama, and prose, related to the awareness of freedom struggle. In this way, Liberation War awareness-based literature has become a special chapter in Bengali literature.

Liberation War-based novels

During Liberation War, the martyred professor Anwar Pasa compiled Rifle Ruti Award. At the same time, Shawkat Osman wrote Jahannam Hote Bida. In these two novels, the artistic quality of the two novelists and the fresh memory of the Liberation War are finely blended. In the two novels, Nil Donson and Nisiddah Loban, by Syed Samsul Hag, the 1971 Liberation War picture is found. In his second novel, Antorgoto, there are components of the Liberation War as well. Amar Joto Gilani, a novel by Rashid Karim, is a Liberation War centered and remorseful novel. There is no mention of an able life in this novel. Mahmudul Haq’s novel Jibon Amar Bon is composed upon the Liberation War background, but the novel shows the reader’s man’s dissected heart much more than it reports about Liberation War. In the sequence of his novel Khelaghar, the role of the Liberation War is very lucid.

Again, in the novel Chilekothar Sepy by Akhtaruzzaman Ilias, Liberation War has been used as background. Hanger Nodi Grenade by Selina Hossain and Firay Cholo by Mirza Abdul Hai has disclosed the awareness of the Liberation War too. Besides, In Jibon 0 Rajnoitik Bastobota by the young novelist Shahidul Jahir, the Liberation War is background. Jahanara Imam’s Ekattorer Dinguli has still been existing as the language picture of those restricted days.

Poems and Liberation War consciousness

Perhaps, in poems Liberation War has come more than prose. In the entire range of poems in Bangladesh, most poets have used Liberation War as a topic and theme. All poets from Samsung Rahaman, Al-Mahmud, and Rafique Azad to Rudra Muhammed Shahidullah, and Daud Haider have written poems based on the Liberation War awareness.

In the poem Sadhinata Tumi by Samsung Rahaman, the days of 1971 have been alive; in the poem, Shahid Sorona by Muhammed Moniruzzaman, feelings of losing kinsman have been painted. Base Laser Gondhoby Rudra Muhammed Shahidullah is a bloody documentary, of the Liberation War.

Freedom, achieved for a supreme sacrifice of Bangladeshi people, is not duly reflected in our poems, no doubt. But it is not baseless to expect that in the future the nation will see the reflection.

Liberation War and short stories

The short story is a subtle medium of literature. The number of artistically successful short stories, written centring the Liberation War, is disgracefully small. Of the novelists or prose writers, who have composed short stories, Akhtaruzzaman Ilias, Syed Samsul Haq, and Selina Hossain are remarkable.

Drama and Liberation War

In post-1971 Bangladesh, an opera movement was found. At that time several Liberation War-based dramas were composed. Of these Payer Awaz Paoa Jay by Syed Samsul Haq is very famous. The drama has achieved artistic enrichment through village background and lore. In the Bangladesh opera world, Syed Ahmed is a matchless personality. The theme of his drama Protidin Ekdin is the Liberation War. Syed Ahmed’s watchful awareness of identity is seen in the drama. Ferry Asche by old dramatist Rones Das Gupta also centers around the Liberation War. Moreover, Many dramatists including Momtaj Uddin Ahmed, Abdullah Al-Mamun, Selim Al-din, Mamunur Rashid, and S.M. Sulaiman have composed plays, based on Liberation War.

Liberation War history is directly associated with almost all of these dramas. But a mention is a must here that every drama is incomplete because here full-fledged objectives of Liberation War and pictures of wrong beliefs in the Liberation War awareness are absent. So it can be said that yet Liberation War-based great play has not been composed.

Liberation War and treatise

In the post-1971 period, several treatises or essays have been composed. Various institutions including Bangla Academy have published a collection of Liberation War-based treatises. Among the essayists, who have composed Liberation War-based essay, Syed Ali Ahsan, Ahmed Sarif, Sirajul Islam Chowdhury, professor Anisuzzaman, Abul Kasem Fazlul Hague, Badruddin Omar, M.R. Akhter Mukul, K.G. Mustafa, Mustafa Nurul Islam, Burhan Uddin Khan Jahangir, and others are remarkable.

Besides, upon rime and music of the Bangladesh Liberation War has a great influence. Dexterous pastoral poets like Gobinda Chandra Halder, Gazi Majharul Anwar, and Apple Mahmud have composed some melodious songs based on Liberation War. `Salam salam Hajar salam…’ sung by Abdul Jabber, ‘Mora ekti Phool ka bachabo bole-juddho kori….’ sung by Apple Mahmud, `Ek nodi rokto perie….’ sung by Sahnaj Rahmatullah, and many other songs have glorified the dignity of our liberation war. George Harison, an Australian singer, arranged a concert for Bangladesh Liberation. The concert was named ‘Concert for Bangladesh’. His song ‘Bangladesh, Bangladesh…’ became world-famous, and here it is clear that our liberation war has left an impressive mark upon the art and literature outside our home.


Liberation War is the greatest experience of a nation. As for a culturally developed state, it is almost a common scene that a great portion of literature and culture is Liberation War-based. Though pathos, it is true that 40 years after the Liberation War no remarkable literary masterpiece has emerged yet, no world-class film has been made. We know and admit that the value of liberation, achieved through a nine-month blood-curdling struggle, is comprehensive, no doubt. So, awareness of this Liberation War should be transmitted from generation to generation, and the best means of it will be the noble literary article based on Liberation War. We believe, such noble literature, enriched with Liberation War awareness, must emerge from the litterateurs of Bangladesh. We are fervently waiting for that time.

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