The sun made up of extremely hot gases. Its glowing surface is called the photosphere. Above the photosphere is the chromosphere (being reddish in color), and beyond this layer is the corona which is visible during eclipses. The visible white light of the sun is made up of seven colors: violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange, and red. Superimposed on these are hundreds of dark likes called the Fraunhofer lines. Like all other stars, the sun is composed mainly of hydrogen.
The average distance of the sun from the earth: 149,398,900 km
The temperature of outer surface: 6,000ºC
Interior temperature : 1,50,00,000ºC
Equatorial diameter: 1,391,980 km
Rotation period (spinning): 25 days 9h 7 min.
Traveling speed of the sun’s rays: 300,00 km/s
Time taken by the sun’s rays to reach the earth’s surface: 496.6 seconds (8min & 16.6 seconds)
Age: About 5 billion years
Expected life: About 10 billion years
Chemical composition: Hydrogen 71%
Other elements: 2.5%