Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818-March 14, 1883) was a German philosopher, political economist, historian, political theorist, sociologist, communist, and revolutionary, whose ideas played a significant role in the development of modern communism and socialism. Marx summarized his approach in the first line of chapter one of The Communist Manifesto, published in 1848. “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.”
Marx argued that capitalism, like previous socioeconomic systems, would inevitably produce internal tensions which would lead to its destruction. Just as capitalism replaced feudalism, he believed socialism would, in its turn, replace capitalism, and lead to a stateless, classless society called pure communism. This would emerge after a transitional period called the “dictatorship of the proletariat” a period sometimes referred to as the “workers state” of “workers’ democracy”, In section one of The Communist Manifesto Marx describes feudalism, capitalism, capitalism, and the role internal social contradictions play in the historical process.