Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is an unforgettable name in the history of Bengalis. He is the father of our nation. He has made an outstanding contribution to the establishment of an independent and sovereign Bangladesh. His unique general lifestyle, strong personality, his contribution to building an independent Bangladesh have made him forever shining in history.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was born on 16 March 1920 in the village of Tungipara in the Gopalganj district of the undivided province of Bengal, India. This Gopalganj district actually belongs to the greater Faridpur district.
Bangabandhu’s father was Sheikh Lutfar Rahman and his mother’s name was Saira Begum. Sheikh Mujibur’s father Sheikh Lutfar was a prominent employee of the government court. Moreover, he had a reputation as an outspoken person. Sheikh Mujib was the third child of the parents.
Acquaintances at home called him Khoka. Sheikh Mujibur’s family consisted of four sisters and two brothers. The older sister was Fatema Begum, the younger sister was Helen, the younger sister was Asiya Begum, and her younger sister was Lily.
Bangabandhu’s only younger brother was named Sheikh Abu Naser. Thus Bangabandhu grew up in a rural environment among brothers and sisters in a very ordinary family. From his childhood, he played a leading role in sports and various cultural activities.
Sheikh Mujib has also received awards in multiple games during his school days. Bangabandhu spent his primary education at Gimadanga Primary School in his village. He later matriculated from Gopalganj Missionary School in 1942, passed IA from Islamia College, Calcutta in 1944, and BA from the same college in 1948.
After the partition of the country in 1947, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was admitted to the Law Department of Dhaka University.
The great architect of independence, Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, led the freedom struggle of Bangladesh. His lifelong activities, movements, and struggles have been directed towards the liberation of the Bengali nation.
With this aim, he initiated the establishment of the Chhatra League in 1948 and the Awami League in 1949. He played a strong role in the language movement of 1947-1952. He was one of the first prisoners of the language movement.
Whether it is Parliament, whether it is Rajpath, his voice is always loud for the Bengali language and culture.
- United Front election of 1954.
- Recognition of Bengali as the state language in the 1956 constitution.
- Movement against the military rule of General Ayub Khan in 1956.
- In 1966, the ‘Demand for Our Survival’ 6-point program was introduced and the movement was based on 6 points.
- The mass uprising of ’69.
- The unprecedented victory of the Awami League in the 1970 general election.
- Declaration of Independence and Independence from the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1971.
The great architect of independence, Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman played a pivotal role in the field.
Bangabandhu had to spend twelve years in prison during the twenty-four years of his rule in Pakistan. In his historic speech on March 7, 1971, he called for a great war of liberation. On 25 March 1971, when the Pakistani aggressors launched an armed attack on the unarmed Bengalis, he formally declared independence in the early hours of 26 March 1971.
Our great war of liberation was conducted in his name. He was the Commander-in-Chief of the Liberation War and the President of the Mujibnagar Government, the first government of independent Bangladesh. We have gained freedom under his strong and uncompromising leadership.
Historic Agartala Case: The ultimate goal of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman’s politics was the independence of Bangladesh. He believed that independence of Bangladesh would not be possible without armed struggle in the end. So he consented to the implementation of their plan by the members of the then secretly formed Revolutionary Council.
The Revolutionary Council planned to divide the Bengalis into different groups on a certain night and at a certain time in a commando-style attack on all the cantonments of the then East Pakistan and take away the weapons of the West Pakistanis and capture them. And, under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, Bangladesh will declare independence.
Sheikh Mujib once visited Agartala, the capital of Tripura, about the plan. The plan was leaked before it was implemented.
The Pakistan government then filed the historic Agartala case (‘State v. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and others’). The ruling party called it a conspiracy case. A total of 35 people, including politicians, civilian government officials, military and former military officers and other civilians, were charged in the case.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was made the number one accused. They were charged under Sections 121 and 131 of the Pakistan Penal Code for plotting to establish the then East Pakistan as an independent and sovereign state by armed means.
The trial of the case began on June 19, 1986 at a special tribunal in the Dhaka Cantonment. The arrest of Sheikh Mujib angered the people of Bengal. The ruling party was forced to release him on February 22, 1969 in response to public outrage.
The next day, on 23 February, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was given a public reception at the Race Course Ground in Dhaka on the initiative of the Central Student Struggle Council. In a gathering of lakhs of people, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was conferred the title of ‘Bangabandhu’ by the then VP of Daksh Tofail Ahmed. Then, in a public meeting held on 5 December 1969, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman named East Pakistan ‘Bangladesh’.
Historical March 7th Speech and Official Journey to Independence: Sheikh Mujibur Rahman delivered a historic speech on March 7, 1971, at Racecourse Maidan (now Suhrawardy Udyan). In this speech, he highlighted the history of exploitation, deprivation, cheating with Bengalis after winning the elections and the political history of Bengalis.
Memorable documents in the history of the world, especially in the history of the Bengali nation. The March 7 speech is one of the most historic speeches in the history of the world. This speech will be immortal to the freedom-loving people of the world.
From the speech of 7th March, he got the inspiration to unite the Bengalis and gave instructions for the war of liberation. Only after this speech can a single destination be determined in front of the Bengali nation. That is ‘freedom’. In his speech on March 7, Bangabandhu called for independence. With that call the Bengali nation started preparing for the war of liberation.
Bangabandhu’s speech was the next step and the direction of gaining independence was’ Build forts in every house. You have to deal with the enemy with whatever you have. He added:
“When I have given blood, I will give more blood, I will set the people of this country free, InshaAllah. This time the struggle is for our liberation, this time the struggle is for freedom. Joy Bangla. ”
In this speech, he gave directions on resistance struggle, the art of war, and how to deal with the enemy. Responding to Bangabandhu’s call for independence on March 7, the people jumped into the war of liberation.
Mujibnagar Government: The formation of Mujibnagar Government is very important in the history of the Liberation War of Bangladesh. Amrakakan of Baidyanathtala in Meherpur district was named Mujibnagar after Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
The ‘Mujibnagar Government’ was formed on 10 April 1971 with the representatives of the National and Provincial Assemblies elected in the 1970 general elections to conduct the war of liberation properly, consolidating it, and forming the world public opinion in favor of the war of liberation.
This was the first government of Bangladesh. On the same day, the ‘Declaration of Independence of Bangladesh Order’ was officially announced. The Mujibnagar government was sworn in on 17 April 1971 and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was made the President of Bangladesh. In his absence, Syed Nazrul Islam acted as interim president.
It was under this government that the Mukti Bahini was formed and the armed struggle against the Pak army began.
When the Pakistani army attacked the unarmed people on March 25, 1971, the Bengali students, the people, the police, the EPR (East Pakistan Rifles) bravely stood up against them. The Bengalis did not give concessions to the Pakistani army without resistance.
Many freedom fighters were martyred in different battlefields while fighting for the country. Again many were seriously injured. So this debt of the freedom fighters will never be repaid. The nation will forever remember the freedom fighters as the children of the sun.
The freedom fighters joined the war with the aim of liberating the country from the enemy, despising death. They were patriotic, infinitely brave and self-sacrificing warriors. People of different professions including soldiers of Bengal Regiment, EPR, police, Ansar, farmers, workers, students participated in the war of liberation.
Bengalis participated in the liberation war of Bangladesh at all levels. Therefore, this war can also be called ‘People’s War’ or ‘People’s War’. The main controlling force of the liberation war of Bangladesh was the people. Therefore, when the war of liberation started, various political parties, students, professionals, women, cultural activists and people of all walks of life jumped into the war from their respective positions.
After a long and bloody battle of nine months at the cost of the lives of 3 million Bengalis, the final victory of the Bangladesh Liberation War was finally achieved with the surrender of the Pakistani aggressors on 16 December 1971.
Return of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
Shortly after his release from prison in Pakistan on January 6, 1972, he flew to London on a Pakistan PIA flight at night and arrived at Heathrow Airport on January 7 at 8:30 am After much formality, Bangabandhu left for the country on the morning of 9 January in the Royal Comet of the British Prime Minister. The plane stopped in Cyprus to pick up oil on the way.
On the morning of January 10, Bangabandhu landed at Delhi’s Palam Airport. After a short stop there, after a state reception and a courtesy talk at the Rashtrapati Bhavan, he flew to Dhaka on a British royal plane. The British comet plane touched Tejgaon airport at 3 pm. From there, it took him two and a half hours to reach the historic racecourse ground through the love and affection of millions of Bengalis. In the midst of millions of people at the racecourse, Bangabandhu reached his family at 7.30 pm.
The process of formation of a war-torn country: On January 10, 1972, the great architect of independence, Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman returned to independent Bangladesh and took charge as the head of government. He took responsibility for the reconstruction of war-torn independent Bangladesh.
Significant achievements of Bangabandhu’s rule
In the field of agriculture: Food grain production was disrupted during the war of liberation. Also, before the defeat, Pakistani forces destroyed food grains, grains, fertilizers, pesticides, and deep and shallow tube wells in government warehouses.
In the nine months of the war of liberation, the income was disrupted and the farmers did not have money to collect and cultivate agricultural inputs. Moreover, during the war of liberation, Pakistani forces and razakar-brokers slaughtered and ate millions of oxen and cows. As a result, there was a crisis of cattle for plowing. To solve these problems, the Bangabandhu government has to take steps to provide agricultural loans on an urgent basis, collect seeds, repair or re-dig deep and shallow tube wells, import several lakh cows, etc.
Under the circumstances, agricultural rehabilitation work was a difficult challenge. As no initiative was taken for land development and irrigation during the Pakistan period, in 1971, 74% of the cultivable land was single crop and only 26% was double crop and three crop. There was little flood control and irrigation.
Food Crisis: When the Bangabandhu government took over, the food shortage in the country was about 4 million tons. The government gets only 4 lakh tonnes of food grains in stock. Even in such a crisis, the government faces a daunting challenge of providing food for about 90,000 Pakistani prisoners of war, 50,000-60,000 razakars and brokers detained, and about half a million Indian troops.
Destroyed Public-Private Buildings and Refugee Rehabilitation: Pakistani forces burned about 4.3 million homes, 3,000 office buildings, 18,000 primary schools, 6,000 high schools and madrasas, 900 college buildings and 19,000 rural haat bazaars across Bangladesh.
These required a lot of money and construction materials such as bamboo, wood, tin, etc. to be rebuilt. In addition, the government has a difficult responsibility to rehabilitate about 10 million refugees and millions of internally displaced persons who took refuge in India during the war of liberation. But the Bangabandhu government was able to do that job smoothly.
Disrupted educational activities: Virtually all educational institutions were closed during the war of liberation. At that time, it was the responsibility of the new government to rebuild the burnt buildings and repair the damaged furniture, benches, tables, chairs, etc., or to rebuild the class. Moreover, the government has a major responsibility to compose and publish useful textbooks for independent Bangladesh.
As many teachers were martyred during the war of liberation, it was necessary to fill those posts. The teachers’ salary was stopped for 9 months. It was also a great responsibility to take care of it.
Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman governmentized the jobs of 1,75,000 primary teachers in the face of economic risks. Introduced full ration system including rice and pulses for primary teachers. Arranged free books and clothes up to the fifth grade.
Destroyed transportation system: During the war of liberation, 264 six major road bridges and 300 railway bridges were destroyed across the country. At that time, the entire part of the 45-mile railway line and the 130-mile railway line were partially damaged. 150 bogies and several locomotives became useless. The locomotive and bogie repair factories were completely destroyed.
Hundreds of government transport buses and trucks were destroyed. The number of destroyed private buses and trucks is insignificant. Around 3,000 cargo boats were sunk across the country. Eighty-five percent of the country’s vessels were destroyed. It is also submerged in government cargoes.
Two ports in Chittagong and Chalna became ineffective due to landmines. The runways of the country’s airports were damaged. No aircraft carrying civilian passengers was in the hands of the government for internal communication.
The Bangabandhu government rebuilt and repaired 250 damaged bridges and culverts, destroyed factories and roads.
Demolition of Telecommunication System: During the War of Liberation, the telecommunication system of foreign countries including Dhaka was destroyed. Prior to the surrender, the Pakistani forces guarding the telephone exchange buildings destroyed the trunk system. They burned telephone company documents.
There was an immediate need for at least 5,000 telephone sets for the city of Dhaka to activate the telephone system. Re-establishment of 31 trunk lines. Importing equipment for exchange. Imported 2000 km long telephone. At least 1000 skilled telephone staff etc.
Power system: Power sub-stations across the country were destroyed. In many places, power lines were cut off and power lines were destroyed. When Bangabandhu’s government took over, there were no electricity poles and nothing in stock at Gadawangula.
Economic Situation: Before surrendering, Pakistan burned the nets of paper stored in the army banks and looted the stored army. They also destroyed bank documents.
During the Pakistan period, 60% of the senior officers and 20% of the lower-level employees working in the banks of Bangladesh were non-Bengali. After the war of liberation, when non-Bengali officers and employees were absent from work, there was a shortage of skilled manpower in the banks.
During the war of liberation the industries and mills were almost closed. As a result, many matches became useless. There was no stockpile of spare parts and raw materials to be introduced in these. In addition, there is a shortage of skilled workers as non-Bengali workers working in various mills go into hiding or take refuge in refugee camps. Foreign exchange is required for import of raw materials.
Cracked administrative structure and lack of skilled administrators: There was an urgent need for skilled engineers, agriculturists, bankers and experienced businessmen to rebuild the country. There was a need for experienced workers in the postal, wire, railway, mill-mills-factories, etc. sectors. Since the non-Bengalis controlled these areas during the Pakistan period, there was a shortage of skilled workers in the new state.
Vacancy of constitution and law : There was no constitution in the hands of the new government. There was colonial law. In a short span of time, the government of Bangabandhu has to fulfill the important responsibility of drafting the constitution and enacting timely laws.
After the independence of the country, the Bangabandhu government presented a complete constitution to the nation within ten months. Effective steps are taken in the fields of education, industry, food, economy, etc. Foreign policy is adopted in the policy of friendship.
In order to build a society free from exploitation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman suppressed the evil forces like Majutdar, black market, etc. with a strong hand. The various programs adopted by the government played a significant role in rebuilding the war-torn country.
After his release from prison in Pakistan on January 10, 1962, he returned to his dream of an independent Bangladesh and set about building an irresistible momentum. Within ten months, Bengalis presented the nation with the world’s greatest constitution on the basis of nationalism, democracy, socialism and secularism.
He took all the mills, banks, etc. under the control of the state and inspired and enlivened the nation under the cover of a golden dream for the establishment of hunger and a poverty-free nation-state based on equal rights for all.
The contribution of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in establishing Islamic values of non-communal and universal humanism by keeping communal harmony intact on the basis of the principle of ‘religion is one’s state’ will be written in gold letters not only in the history of the country but also in the history of world human rights.
Establishment of Islamic foundations and allotment of places, the formation of Bangladesh Madrasa Education Board, allotment of land for World Ijtema, OIC membership of Bangladesh, and low-cost Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia The contribution of Father of the Nation Bangabandhu in its expansion will be remembered for ages.
Bangladesh in the international world: Bangladesh became a member of the British Commonwealth in 1972 and the United Nations on 16 September 1984. On 25 September 1974, Bangabandhu delivered his first speech in Bengal at the UN General Assembly. He also became a member of the Bangladesh Alliance Neutral Movement. The World Peace Council awarded Bangabandhu the ‘Julio Curie’ Peace Medal. During the reign of Bangabandhu, Bangladesh gained respect and dignity in the international arena.
The brutal massacre of August 15: Another blow came when the country was recovering. On the night of 15 August 1975, a misguided army raided Bangabandhu’s house at Dhanmondi No. 32. At that time they killed Bangabandhu and all his family members one by one.
Bangabandhu’s infant son Sheikh Russell was not spared either. Bangabandhu’s two daughters Sheikh Hasina and Sheikh Rehana survived that day as they were out of the country. He was assassinated just four and a half years after independence. Bangabandhu’s wife Begum Fazilatunnesa Mujib, Bangabandhu’s only brother Sheikh Abu Nasser, Bangabandhu’s eldest son Sheikh Kamal, Sheikh Jamal, infant son Sheikh Russell, daughter-in-law Deshbarenya Sultana Kamal and Rozi Jamalul Rozi Jamal Mani and his pregnant wife Begum Arju Mani, Bangabandhu’s brother-in-law and one of his cabinet members, farmer leader Abdur Rob Serniabat, his youngest daughter Baby Serniabat, youngest son Arif Serniabat, grandson Sukant Abdullah Babu, nephew Shahid Seri
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman wrote three books while in prison as a political prisoner. The three books are easy to read and informative. Time is found in three books.
Bangabandhu’s first unfinished autobiography was published in 2012. The book covers the period from mid-1966 to 1954.
Bangabandhu’s second book Prison Diary (2016). Sheikh Rehana has named this book. This book was also written by Bangabandhu while he was in jail.
His third book I saw is Nayachin (2020). It was also written while he was a political prisoner in prison. Bangabandhu attended the Asia-Pacific Regional Peace Conference held in Beijing, China in October 1952 as a representative of Pakistan. The book was written in the light of the experience of seeing Nayachin at that time.
Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is recognized as the ‘Father of the Nation’ by the Bengalis for playing a unique role in the establishment of an independent-sovereign Bangladesh. Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman is the father of the nation. The great hero of independence and the architect of independent Bangladesh.
As a result, this undisputed leader is not dead. Bangabandhu too is well-established as an indispensable and inseparable chapter in world history for his outstanding example of patriotism and self-sacrifice.
He is not only the Bangabandhu of Bengalis, but also the world-renowned politician ‘Vishwabandhu’. In 1971, Sheikh Mujib was declared the ‘Father of the Nation’ at Paltan Maidan.
Newsweek magazine, published on April 5, 1971, described Bangabandhu as a ‘poet of politics’ and made a remark that was in fact very important and significant. It was like this-
‘Mujib does not pretend to have basic thoughts. He is a political poet, not an engineer. Instead of an interest in art and engineering, the tendency towards art is normal in the case of Bengalis. So his’ style ‘was probably the most useful for uniting followers of all classes and ideologies.’
In this context, there is an unmistakable argument that Bangabandhu’s epoch-making speech of March 7 is an impeccable poem and that Bangabandhu has been awarded as a great poet. That is why Bangabandhu has been established in the world in an extraordinary great book. He has become a legend in history. His ideals do not die. Following that ideal, we will build a golden Bengal. Because, another name of love is Sheikh Mujibur Rahman.
- Short Composition on The Victory Day of Bangladesh
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- The Freedom Fight of Bangladesh
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- Composition on Celebration of Independence Day
- Abdul Hamid Khan Bhashani
- Essay on War Crimes on Trial in Bangladesh